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The Czech mental health care system has been struggling with fragmentation, lack of community based services and prevailing orientation on pharmacotherapy. The presentation will summarize the situation briefly, adopting the perspective of three major challenges: the transformation of the system of care, the development of efficient practices and necessary recovery oriented approach. The plans outlined in the Strategy for the reform of psychiatric care by the Ministry of Health are promising as well as financial framework of Structural funds that should make the major changes feasible in next years. Nevertheless there are many pitfalls on the way of transformation ahead of us. One of the dangers is to speak about the first integrated community teams as about “experiments” – evoking something that might be tried and abandoned afterwards. If the transformation process has to be successful, the system of financing must prioritise community based services and a clear plan for the extent of the hospital care must exist.